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Rome: Republic to Empire Study Guide



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

Romans were successful in conquering Italy despite their poor diplomacy.
 

 2. 

The Roman body of law, known as the Law of Nations, applied only to the patricians.
 

 3. 

The Romans suffered a serious defeat against Hannibal at Cannae.
 

 4. 

A dictator is a ruler with absolute power.
 

 5. 

In Rome, boys of the upper class were not expected to learn to read.
 

 6. 

Roman women in the Early Empire could not own or sell property.
 

 7. 

The Romans adopted Christianity as their official religion under Theodosius the Great.
 

 8. 

Constantine called Constantinople “New Rome.”
 

 9. 

Rome prohibited the worship of native gods and goddesses throughout its provinces.
 

 10. 

The Romans believed that the observance of proper ritual by state priests brought them into a right relationship with the gods.
 

 11. 

Under the five good emperors, the powers of the emperor declined while the Senate’s power increased.
 

 12. 

The Romans fought against the Carthaginians for control of Sicily during the First Punic War.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 13. 

By the end of the second century B.C.E., this group had become the governing body of the Roman state.
a.
Senate
c.
republic
b.
triumvirate
d.
emperors
 
 
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus tried to remedy Rome's growing economic and social crisis caused by the decline of the small farmer. They urged the council of the plebs to pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back public land held by large landowners and give it to landless Romans.
 

 14. 

mc014-1.jpg What happened as a result of the proposal described in the passage and the brothers’ other reform efforts?
a.
The people elected the brothers to the senate.
b.
The Roman senate honored the brothers.
c.
The emperor quickly banished the brothers.
d.
A group of senators killed the brothers.
 
 
“We have overcome all the nations of the world, because we have realized that the world is directed and governed by the gods."
—Cicero
 

 15. 

mc015-1.jpg Romans believed that gods and spirits controlled all aspects of life and honored them with shrines, offerings, and rituals. What other group did the Romans view as gods, building temples in their honor?
a.
emperors
c.
soldiers
b.
senators
d.
philosophers
 

 16. 

This Jewish teacher traveled and preached in Judaea and Galilee.
a.
Paul
c.
Mark
b.
Simon Peter
d.
Jesus
 

 17. 

Diocletian and Constantine’s social and economic policies were based on ____.
a.
agreement and freedom
c.
restriction and vitality
b.
control and coercion
d.
rewards and penalties
 

 18. 

In early Rome, praetors were in charge of these laws.
a.
military
c.
centuriate
b.
treasury
d.
civil
 

 19. 

Which of the following is a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote?
a.
polis
c.
dictatorship
b.
republic
d.
oligarchy
 

 20. 

The Roman Senate, which came to hold an important position in the Roman Republic, was
a.
made up of two consuls, two praetors, and officials.
b.
a select group of about 300 patricians who served for life.
c.
made up of Greek generals, and was charged with protecting the Republic.
d.
a group of 500 plebeians who oversaw the expansion of Rome’s borders.
 

 21. 

Julius Caesar, the first dictator of Rome, was
a.
the ruler for 20 years.
c.
assassinated.
b.
born in Spain.
d.
the founder of Rome.
 

 22. 

Which of the following was a period of peace and prosperity that lasted almost 200 years?
a.
Pax Romana
c.
Rubicon
b.
Long Winter
d.
the Republic
 

 23. 

____ became the first Christian emperor.
a.
Constantine
c.
Cicero
b.
Nero
d.
Julius Caesar
 

 24. 

The Edict of Milan proclaimed
a.
official tolerance of Christianity.
b.
a reduction of taxes for the first time in a hundred years.
c.
Christianity as a crime punishable by death.
d.
an immediate end to all religious activity.
 

 25. 

Believing the Roman Empire had grown too large for a single ruler, Diocletian
a.
withdrew armies from many of its borders, effectively shrinking the empire to a manageable size.
b.
divided it into four units, each with its own ruler.
c.
handed over power to the people, giving them control of the military for the first time.
d.
divided it in half and appointed Theodosius as a ruler with equal power.
 

 26. 

The early development of Rome was most influenced by the
a.
Macedonians, who lived in huts and were herders and farmers.
b.
Greeks, who passed on their alphabet.
c.
Etruscans, who launched a building program that turned Rome into a city.
d.
Campanians, who were advanced architects and soldiers.
 

 27. 

The body of laws known as the ____ was one of Rome’s chief gifts to later generations.
a.
Roman Senate
b.
Law of Nations
c.
Ten Commandments
d.
Constitution of the Roman Republic
 

 28. 

The First Triumvirate was made up of
a.
Marius, Scully, and Cincinnatus.
c.
Lucius, Cornelius, and Sulla.
b.
Tiberius, Gaius, and Octavian.
d.
Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar.
 

 29. 

The emperor kept the poverty-stricken masses pacified by
a.
giving them free grain and providing entertainment on a grand scale.
b.
making hollow promises that were never fulfilled.
c.
establishing the first lottery in history.
d.
maintaining martial law.
 

 30. 

Under which emperor did Rome adopt Christianity as its official religion?
a.
Julius Caesar
c.
Nero
b.
Theodosius the Great
d.
Diocletian
 

 31. 

In the long run, the economic and social policies of Diocletian and Constantine
a.
were initially successful, but did not work in the long run.
b.
produced a period of prosperity unrivaled by any other time in Roman history.
c.
angered the populace to such a degree that they rose up in revolt.
d.
strengthened the Roman Empire against the invading tribes of the north.
 
 
“But the majority opinion favoured killing him while he sat in the Senate, where he would be by himself since non-Senators would not be admitted, and where the many conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas. This plan won the day. Chance, too, played a part, for it made him settle on a definite day for the Senate to meet to discuss his intended measures.”

—Nicolaus of Damascus, Caesar Is Assassinated
 

 32. 

mc032-1.jpg What is being plotted in the passage?
a.
the murder of a non-Senator
c.
the assassination of Caesar
b.
the crowning of Caesar
d.
the overthrow of the Senate
 

 33. 

mc033-1.jpg According to the passage, how would going to the Senate that day make Caesar
vulnerable to assassination?
a.
Caesar would be sitting alone.
b.
The conspirators would be wearing togas, and they could easily hide their
weapons.
c.
Both A and B
d.
None of the above
 
 
Patricians
Plebeians
ruling classmajority
great landownerssmall landowners, craftspeople, merchants, farmers
Originally, only patricians served in Senate and held public office.served in council of the plebs
 

 34. 

mc034-1.jpg Based on the chart, why might laws passed by the government have favored the wealthy?
a.
Only the wealthy needed legal protection.
b.
The council of plebs consisted of wealthy landowners.
c.
Only patricians could serve in the Senate.
d.
Criminals came mainly from the plebeian class.
 

 35. 

mc035-1.jpg Which statement accurately describes the patricians?
a.
They were a ruling class of merchants.
b.
They made up the vast majority of the population.
c.
They served on the Senate and owned large estates.
d.
They chose to mainly keep to their estates rather than mix in politics.
 

 36. 

mc036-1.jpg Which of the following was true of the Patricians?
a.
Most people in the Roman Empire were patricians.
b.
People who owned only a small amount of land were patricians.
c.
Patricians participated in Roman government.
d.
Patricians made significant contributions to the economic welfare of the Roman Empire.
 
 
nar006-1.jpg
 

 37. 

mc037-1.jpg According to the chart, how long did the reign of the five good emperors last?
a.
79 years
c.
127 years
b.
84 years
d.
49 years
 

 38. 

mc038-1.jpg According to the chart, which one of the five good emperors reigned the longest?
a.
Hadrian
c.
Trajan
b.
Marcus Aurelius
d.
Antoninus Pius
 

 39. 

The early development of the culture of Rome was most influenced by the
a.
Macedonians, who lived in huts and were herders and farmers.     
c.
Etruscans, who launched a building program that turned Rome into a city.     
b.
Greeks, who passed on their alphabet, religious theology, literature, architecture, & more.
d.
Campanians, who were advanced architects and soldiers.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 40. 

Roman upper-class children were expected to learn to ____________________.
 

 

 41. 

The Jewish temple in ____________________ was destroyed by the Romans after a Jewish revolt.
 

 

 42. 

____________________ tried to revive the traditional Roman state religion.
 

 

 43. 

Jesus’ Jewish followers believed him to be the “anointed one” or ____________________.
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
triumvirate
f.
Vandals
b.
Romulus Augustulus
g.
Theodosius the Great
c.
Antony and Cleopatra
h.
paterfamilias
d.
Sadducees
i.
insulae
e.
Etruscans
j.
plebeians
 

 44. 

turned Rome into a city
 

 45. 

less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers
 

 46. 

a government by three people with equal power
 

 47. 

committed suicide after being defeated by Octavian
 

 48. 

Jewish leaders who favored cooperation with the Romans
 

 49. 

made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Augustus
f.
Zealots
b.
republic
g.
Spartacus
c.
Diocletian
h.
Visigoths
d.
patricians
i.
Virgil
e.
Edict of Milan
j.
Julius Caesar
 

 50. 

a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens can vote
 

 51. 

great landowners who became Rome’s ruling class
 

 52. 

assassinated by a group of leading senators
 

 53. 

first Roman emperor
 

 54. 

proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity
 

 55. 

believed the Roman Empire was too large for a single ruler
 

Short Answer
 
 
“Upon the commencement of the war, Antony had no fewer than five hundred armed vessels, magnificently adorned, and furnished with eight or ten banks of oars. He had, moreover, a hundred thousand foot, and twelve thousand horse. The auxiliary kings, who fought under his banners, were Bacchus, of Africa, Tarcondemus, of the upper Cilicia, Archelaus, of Cappadocia, Philadelphus, of Paphlagonia, Mithridates, of Commagene, and Adallas, of Thrace . . . . Besides these he had supplies also from the king of the Medes. Caesar [Octavian] had two hundred and fifty men-of-war, eighty thousand foot, and an equal number of horse with the enemy.”

Plutarch, Battle of Actium
 

 56. 

sa056-1.jpg According to the passage, who was fighting whom?
 

 57. 

What characteristics made Rome successful?
 

 58. 

Why did the Romans view Christians as harmful?
 

 59. 

What are the fundamental principles of Natural Law? Where do we see them today?
 

Essay
 

 60. 

Explain how the location of the city of Rome was key to its early growth.
 

 61. 

Explain why Christianity was able to attract so many followers.
 

 62. 

Explain the conflict between Rome and Carthage. Why was it so important to developement of Rome?
 

 63. 

Who was Cleopatra and what was her role in the history of Rome?
 

 64. 

Explain the conflict between Roman religious practice and Christianity.
 



 
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