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Classical Greece Study Guide



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

The most important form in Greek architecture was the temple, which was dedicated to a god or goddess.
 

 2. 

Greece is a mountainous island located in the Mediterranean Sea.
 

 3. 

Athens, Sparta, and other Greeks united against the Persian invaders.
 

 4. 

Pericles expanded Athenian democracy, enabling all adult citizens to vote.
 

 5. 

The practice of ostracism in the Athenian democratic system allowed the assembly to ban people considered harmful from the city for ten years.
 

 6. 

The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War brought an end to the age of classical Greek culture and government.
 

 7. 

The word Hellenistic means “cultural expansion.”
 

 8. 

The allied Greek states, under the leadership of Philip II, defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Chaeronea.
 

 9. 

Ancient Greeks held festivals to honor the gods.
 

 10. 

Religion was observed by Greek priests and scholars, but largely ignored by the general population.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 11. 

The Mycenaeans were a group of people who prided themselves on their ____.
a.
artistic murals
c.
heroic deeds in battle
b.
pottery
d.
government
 

 12. 

The period after the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization is called the ____.
a.
Dark Age
c.
Age of Classical Greece
b.
Bronze Age
d.
Age of Poetry
 

 13. 

The religious center of a Greek city-state was often in a fortified area called an ____.
a.
ephor
c.
agora
b.
oligarchy
d.
acropolis
 

 14. 

The end of tyranny in Greece led to the development of ____, or government by the people.
a.
oligarchy
c.
ephors
b.
democracy
d.
communism
 

 15. 

An Athenian family’s primary function was to ____.
a.
sacrifice to the gods
c.
farm the land
b.
be involved in government
d.
have children
 

 16. 

He was the chief god and father of the gods according to Greek religion.
a.
Poseidon
c.
Zeus
b.
Ares
d.
Apollo
 

 17. 

Which of the following refers to an organized system of thought?
a.
oracle
c.
philosophy
b.
tragedy
d.
ritual
 
 
“[Justice is]… sometimes spoken of as the virtue of an individual, and sometimes as the virtue of a State… And is not a State larger than an individual?... I propose therefore that we enquire into the nature of justice and injustice, first as they appear in the State, and secondly in the individual, proceeding from the greater to the lesser and comparing them."

— Plato, The Republic, Book II
 

 18. 

mc018-1.jpg Based on the passage, Plato believed that individuals could not live a good life unless they
a.
enquired about nature..
c.
spoke of individual virtues.
b.
lived in a just state.
d.
compared themselves to others.
 

 19. 

By 750 BCE, the ____, or city-state, became the central focus of Greek life.
a.
hoplite
c.
polis
b.
agora
d.
pantheon
 

 20. 

Which of the following was the first Greek state?
a.
Tarsus
c.
Ionia
b.
Mycenae
d.
Crete
 

 21. 

The government of Sparta was an oligarchy, which means that it was
a.
ruled by the few.
c.
controlled by a popular vote.
b.
ruled by religious leaders.
d.
ruled by a king.
 

 22. 

Which of the following happened at Thermopylae?
a.
An outnumbered Greek fleet defeated the Persian fleet.
b.
A Greek force of 7,000 held off the Persian army for 2 days.
c.
The Athenians built a fleet of about 200 ships.
d.
An outnumbered Athenian army attacked and defeated the Egyptians decisively.
 

 23. 

The conquests of Alexander the Great created the
a.
Dark Ages, a time of great sadness for the Greek people.
b.
Hellenistic Era, an age that saw the expansion of the Greek language and Greek ideas to the non-Greek world.
c.
Macedonian Age, a period of advancement in art.
d.
Age of Lawlessness, a period of extreme cruelty and anarchy.
 

 24. 

Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey were
a.
paintings.
c.
two immense ships.
b.
epic poems.
d.
statues of the gods.
 

 25. 

As a result of the reforms of Cleisthenes, the government of Athens
a.
laid the foundation for Athenian democracy.
b.
was taken over by the military.
c.
was run by a tyranny of men with new wealth.
d.
became chaotic and disorganized.
 

 26. 

At the pass at Thermopylae, the Spartan troops
a.
were all poisoned by the enemy.
b.
were especially brave, even though the Greek army was vastly outnumbered.
c.
refused to fight, because many had relatives in the opposing army.
d.
were defeated easily, earning a legacy of shame.
 

 27. 

According to Greek religion, the chief gods lived
a.
within the hearts of the people who worshipped them.
b.
in natural objects such as rocks, trees, and streams.
c.
on the moon.
d.
on Olympus.
 

 28. 

What was the result of Alexander the Great’s conquests?
a.
Alexander ruled Greece and all conquered lands for over 20 years.
b.
Greek language, art, architecture, and literature spread throughout Southeast Asia.
c.
After hundreds of years, Persia finally conquered Greece and took control of Greek lands.
d.
The progress of Greek scholars was halted.
 

 29. 

Which four kingdoms emerged following Alexander’s death?
a.
Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum, and Egypt
b.
Sparta, Rome, Mycenae, and Minoa
c.
Persia, Syria, Palestine, and Spain
d.
Thermopylae, Marathon, Pergamum, and Egypt
 
 
 
Advantage
Disadvantage
Tyrannyone person makes decisionsgoes against the rule of law
Democracyplaces power in the hands of the most peoplecan be difficult to reach a consensus
Oligarchyrelatively efficientpower in the hands of a few people
 

 30. 

mc030-1.jpg If reaching a decision quickly is the highest priority, which form of government is best?
a.
democracy
c.
oligarchy
b.
tyranny
d.
a republic
 
 
“The activity of the mind is not only the highest . . . but also the most continuous: we are able to study continuously more easily than to perform any kind of action. . . . It follows that the activity of our intelligence constitutes the complete happiness of man. In other words, a life guided by intelligence is the best and most pleasant for man, inasmuch as intelligence, above all else, is man. Consequently, this kind of life is the happiest.”

—Margaret King, Western Civilization, 2000
 

 31. 

mc031-1.jpg What is the main theme of this passage by Aristotle?
a.
the importance of intellectual life
c.
the importance of continuous activity
b.
the rewards of happiness
d.
the rewards of good health
 
 
“The disease began, it is said, in Ethiopia beyond Egypt, and then descended into Egypt and Libya and spread over the greater part of the King’s territory. Then it suddenly fell upon the city of Athens, and attacked first the inhabitants of the Peiraeus . . . I shall describe its actual course, explaining the symptoms, from the study of which a person should be best able, having knowledge of it beforehand, to recognize it if it should ever break out again. For I had the disease myself and saw others sick of it.”
— Thucydides, Plague in Athens
 

 32. 

mc032-1.jpg According to the passage, where did the plague begin?
a.
Athens
c.
Ethiopia
b.
Piraeus
d.
Libya
 

 33. 

mc033-1.jpg From Thucydides’ description of the plague, which is a logical conclusion?
a.
It is always fatal.
c.
It is highly treatable.
b.
It has few symptoms.
d.
It is very contagious.
 
 
nar005-1.jpg
 

 34. 

mc034-1.jpg According to the time line, how long after Phillip II came to power did Macedonia crush the Greeks?
a.
1 year
c.
31 years
b.
21 years
d.
100 years
 
 
“The Peloponnesian War not only lasted for a long time, but throughout its course brought with it unprecedented suffering for Greece. Never before had so many cities been captured and then devastated, whether by foreign armies or by the Greek powers themselves; never had there been so many exiles; never such a loss of life—both in actual warfare and in internal revolutions.”

—Thucydides, R. Warner, trans., The History of the Peloponnesian War, 1954.
 

 35. 

mc035-1.jpg According to the passage, what contributed to Greece’s suffering as a result of the Peloponnesian War?
a.
great loss of life
c.
devastation of cities
b.
exile of many people
d.
All of the above
 
 
“Our constitution,” Pericles said, “is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law; when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership in a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses.”
—Pericles, as quoted in History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Thucydides
 

 36. 

mc036-1.jpg According to Pericles, a democracy is best defined as ____.
a.
power in the hands of all the people
b.
power in the hands of the majority of people
c.
power in the hands of a minority of  people
d.
power in the hands of one person
 

 37. 

mc037-1.jpg According to the passage, a person is put in public office based on what?
a.
social class
c.
family lineage
b.
ability
d.
None of the above
 

 38. 

What impact did the high mountain ranges in Greece have on the development of Greek communities?
a.
Communities were forced to cooperate due to their close proximity, creating a unified Greek culture.
b.
The mountains separated Greek communities from the sea.
c.
The rough, mountainous terrain made it difficult for Greek communities to defend themselves, so they were frequently invaded.
d.
The communities developed in isolation from one another, causing them to become fiercely independent.
 

 39. 

How did physical geography facilitate trade among the Greek colonies?
a.
Greek colonies were separated by large, flat expanses of land.
b.
Most Greek colonies could be easily reached by water.
c.
Most Greek colonies were located on a single peninsula.
d.
Greek colonies were all connected by a single river and its tributaries.
 

 40. 

Which of the following best describes Greek religion?
a.
atheistic, believing in no gods
b.
monotheistic, believing in a single god
c.
polytheistic, believing in many gods
d.
panentheistic, believing that God is part of nature
 

 41. 

To learn the will of the gods, the ancient Greeks consulted the _____.
a.
arete
c.
agora
b.
phalanx
d.
oracle
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 42. 

During the eighth century BCE, the Greeks adopted the ____________________ to give themselves a new system of writing.
 

 

 43. 

Greek rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats were called ____________________.
 

 

 44. 

The lives of the Spartans were very organized and tightly controlled, and the word spartan means “_________________________.”
 

 
 
“Our constitution does not copy the law of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy."

Pericles, as quoted in History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Thucydides
 

 45. 

co045-1.jpg Based on the passage, readers can conclude that __________ encouraged all citizens to participate in government.
 

 
 
Greek festivals developed as a way to honor the gods and goddesses. Certain festivals were held at special locations, such as those dedicated to the worship of Zeus at Olympia or to Apollo at Delphi. Numerous events, including athletic games, took place in honor of the gods at the Greek festivals.
 

 46. 

co046-1.jpg The first games, as described in the passage, were held at the ____________________ festival in 776 B.C.; an expanded, revised version of the games exists today.
 

 

 47. 

During the Hellenistic Era, there were considerable cultural accomplishments, especially in ____________________ and ____________________.
 

 

 48. 

__________culture was a blend of Greek and Eastern cultural elements.
 

 

 49. 

Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea enabled the Greeks to take control of the __________ Sea.
 

 

 50. 

The period of history which saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance was called the Age of ____________________.
 

 

 51. 

Pericles expanded Athenian involvement in government by creating a ___________ democracy.
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Cleisthenes
e.
Homer
b.
Socrates
f.
Thucydides
c.
acropolis
g.
agora
d.
Knossos
h.
Olympus
 

 52. 

central city of Minoan civilization
 

 53. 

writer of the Iliad and the Odyssey
 

 54. 

fortified place and religious center
 

 55. 

open area used as a market and meeting place
 

 56. 

created foundation of democracy for Athens
 

 57. 

home of the Greek gods
 

 58. 

believed “the unexamined life is not worth living”
 

 59. 

the greatest historian of the ancient world
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
oligarchy
f.
Pheidippides
b.
polis
g.
Herodotus
c.
Macedonia
h.
Achilles
d.
Mycenae
i.
Hellenistic
e.
Archimedes
j.
Sophocles
 

 60. 

first Greek state
 

 61. 

Greek hero from the Iliad
 

 62. 

city-state
 

 63. 

rule by the few
 

 64. 

Athenian who ran from Marathon to Athens
 

 65. 

playwright who wrote Oedipus Rex
 

 66. 

ruled by Philip II
 

 67. 

wrote History of the Persian Wars
 

 68. 

“to imitate Greeks”
 

 69. 

shouted “Eureka!” after discovering specific gravity
 

Short Answer
 
 
nar010-1.jpg
 

 70. 

sa070-1.jpg Alexander encouraged his soldiers to marry native women in the lands they conquered. Which goal of Alexander’s on the graphic organizer do you think he was trying to accomplish with this tactic?
 

 71. 

sa071-1.jpg Due to Alexander’s conquests, Greek language, architecture, literature, and art spread throughout Southwest Asia and the Near East. According to the graphic organizer, which of Alexander’s goals did this accomplish?
 
 
“We sailed hence, always in much distress, till we came to the land of the lawless and inhuman Cyclopes. Now the Cyclopes neither plant nor plough, but trust in providence, and live on such wheat, barley, and grapes as grow wild without any kind of tillage, and their wild grapes yield them wine as the sun and the rain may grow them. They have no laws nor assemblies of the people, but live in caves on the tops of high mountains; each is lord and master in his family, and they take no account of their neighbours.”
—Homer, The Odyssey
 

 72. 

sa072-1.jpg According to the passage, what type of government did the Cyclopes have?
 

 73. 

Describe the practice of ostracism in Athenian democracy.
 

 74. 

How did Pericles make Athens into the center of Greek culture following the destructive Persian Wars?
 

 75. 

What were the strengths and weaknesses of Athens in the Peloponnesian War?
 

 76. 

What led the Persians to attack Athens, starting the Persian Wars?
 

Essay
 

 77. 

How did Greek tyrants gain and keep their power? What led to their demise by the end of the sixth century BCE?
 

 78. 

Explain why Spartan women had greater freedom and power than was common elsewhere in Greece.
 

 79. 

What led to the Great Peloponnesian War? How did it end?
 

 80. 

Describe the growth of democracy in Athens.
 

 81. 

Explain the spread of Greek culture into Southwest Asia during the Hellenistic Era.
 



 
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